Other goddesses

In Hinduism, "other gods" (or "other goddesses") can be, for most of the time, understood as a kind of "roles" of One God and these "roles" have their names. Even we human beings have roles of teachers, but simultaneously sometimes also roles of pupils (we learn some languages, for example), mothers and daughters. Shakta followers consider Devi Mata (Durga) the Supreme God. Roles of Durga are Kali, Bhairavi, Lakshmi, but not only these...

I optically recognized Markandeya Purana and it is here available for download as text. Devi Mahatmyam (Chapter 81 in Markandeya Purana) is also in the book. Download it here.

Chatuhsasthi (chausanth) Yogini - 64 Yogini

The 64 Yogini cult was a mystical female cult which started in the 9th and ended in the 13th (AD) century (globally; some secret offshoots of it might exist even later). At that time, it was not a marginal religious group. The purpose of this cult was to develop supernatural powers. Yoginis were not witches, but servants of Mother Divine - all devotional in nature. There are rumors that they could really develop tremendous supernatural abilities (dematerialization, etc.) and this is probably true, as people living near their abandoned temples refer to Yoginis in hushed tones. The Yogini temple at Hirapur had existed for many hundred years but it was discovered only in 1953, which also proves that Yoginis have always evoked dread. It is wrong to confuse the Yogini cult with black magic, but the word "black tantricism" can be used. Their central focus of worship was Bhairavi, Kali and Shiva (Bhairava). In Hirapur, the central Goddess of the Yoginis was Mahamaya (the name is also used in books such as Devi Mahatmyam and Devi Bhagavatam). The difference between Kali and Bhairavi is that Shiva is particularly extremely wrathful as the Bhairavi's consort but His wrathfulness is not seen so tremendous as the Kali's consort. Some people believe that Bhairavi is thus the fiercest form of Mother Divine.

There is a very good website here, but with some wrong information. There is a statement there that the name of the 63rd Yogini - Sri Khemukhi (described as the long-beaked bird) is derived from the word "khed" (voracious mouth). It is a nonsense. The name Khemukhi is most probably compounded of "khe" (in the sky - expressed in the image of the long-beaked bird) and "mukhi" (faced). The word "mukhi" has its place in the Khoja community - Mukhi and Kamadhia are the treasurer and accountant. Although these two words are used in Islam, their resemblance to Hindu words is shocking. Kamadi, the goddess who gives, is the name derived from Kamadhenu - a divine cow that grants any wish for the true seeker. The Khojas were originally Hindus of the trading class inhabiting the villages and towns of the Upper Sind. The Mukhi and Kamadia are the traditional titles of the far history. I therefore think that Sri Kamadi - the 6th Yogini (in Bheraghat Jabalpur), could be an accountant, and Sri Khemukhi a treasurer. The numbers 63 (Sri Khemukhi) and 6 (Sri Kamadi) are probably tightly associated (a similar fusion of Islam and Hinduism can also be seen in Goddess Bon Bibi).

64 Yoginis were organized. And as an organization they had to have someone who would help in situations when money was needed.

It was an organized cult which used black magic but with a positive goal. So it is really improper to say that 64 Yoginis were black magicians - they only used destructive energies (of Kali or Bhairavi) with a goal to come to the positive end (unlike real black magicians who always have only a negative goal). For example, they wanted to acquire supernatural powers and heal people who were in need. Their final goal was to come to Mother Durga (and to serve Her).

It was a very secret organization and with very secret communication. Such a communication is called sandha bhasa or twilight language. You may also look here at some of my paranormal experiences.

The word "mukhi", too, is the word with a "twilight language" meaning. Mukhi means "faced" and "khemukhi" is someone who is facing you from the sky. The term "mukhi" is also used for types of rudrakshas - one faced rudraksha or one Mukhi rudraksha, two faced rudraksha or two Mukhi rudraksha, as described here. And as "KHE" is very similar to "EK" - khemukhi as "ek mukhi" (one faced rudraksha) is strongly associated with Lord Shiva. The One Mukhi Rudraksha is the symbol of Godhood. The One Mukhi Rudraksha is itself Lord Shiva.

Another very good website about 64 Yoginis with high resolution pictures is here. The names of the Yoginis in the Hirapur temple differ from the names found in the Chaunsat Yogini Temple in Bheraghat, Jabalpur.

Seven Mothers, Sapta Matrikas, are tightly related with 64 yoginis (7+1x8=64). There were 8 groups of 64 yoginis (7+1) with a leading goddess (1) in every group, thus 8 goddesses led the whole group of 64 yoginis and all other goddesses' role in the group was to serve the leading goddesses.


The Rig Vedic mother of Gods (Devamatri). She is the mother of 12 Adityas and of many other deities.


An older sister of Lakshmi and the goddess of misfortune.

Bahuchara Mata

Bahuchara Mata is a Hindu goddess. She was a daughter of a charan.


The gentle form of Kali, which was created by Shiva along with Virabhadra after Daksha had insulted Lord Shiva.

Bon Bibi

Lady of the forest in the largest mangrove forest in the world - Sundarbans. Read more here.


Chelamma is Hindu goddess of the South Karnataka region in India. She is Scorpion Goddess and is worshipped along with the tantric goddess Kolaramma (Durga) in Kolar (a city in South Indian state of Karnataka).


A strictly female historical cult; the term "dakini" means something like a "sky dancer". Some females wanted to achieve supernatural abilities and practiced various forms of secret tantras. The term "dakini" or "yogini" is sometimes confused and used both for mysterious females who could activate certain extraordinary powers, but there is a DIFFERENCE between Dakini (a witch, or a female embodiment of enlightened energy) and Yogini (a devotional female yogi). Dakinis are prevalent in Hinduism and in the Zhang Zhung Bön tradition, too; in the Tibetan Buddhism they may also be understood as muses.


The Aditi's sister and the Rig Vedic mother of Daityas with the sage Kashyapa. She was in opposition of Aditi and was therefore understood as someone who tried to raise the power of demons to the point when evil suppresses anything that is good.


Ganga is mentioned in the Rig Veda, the earliest of the Hindu scriptures. According to Hindus, the river Ganga is sacred. They worship it also personified as goddess Ganga who holds an important place in the Hindu religion.


In Shaktism, Kali is Goddess standing in the Triangle of Light together with Lakshmi and Sarasvati. It is One (Durga) God with three principles and Kali in it is strength. The creation of Kali describes Markandeya Purana (Durga created Her from Herself in order to fight demons): Soon they saw the goddess, slightly smiling, seated upon the lion, on a huge golden peak of the majestic mountain. On seeing her some of them made a strenuous effort to capture her, and others approached her holding their bows bent and their swords drawn. Thereat Ambiká uttered her wrath aloud against those foes, and her countenance then grew dark as ink in her wrath. Out from the surface of her forehead, which was rugged with frowns, issued suddenly Kali of the terrible countenance...

I have more information on Kali here.

Kali Sara

Kali Sara is the Black Madonna of the Roma people, who come to the city Les Saintes Maries de la Mer in France every year to worship Kali Sara. This worship by the Roma people is recorded from the 19th century and many authors see a parallel with the Indian Goddess Kali. The Catholic Church approves the pilgrimage. The origin of the black statue is not quite clear, as it is very ancient; some believe that the "Black Madonna" was here already before the arrival of Christianity. It is a known fact that the Roma people come from India. Thus they could import Kali from India to Europe, which was referenced by some ethnographers as a possibility not quite known by the majority population in Europe the Roma people live with.


Karumariamman, also known as Mari (pronounced the same as Mary, the Jesus' Mother), Mariamman, Mariaai, Amman, is the south Indian Hindu goddess of rain. She is the main south Indian Mother Goddess often depicted with five-headed cobra behind her head. She is the equivalent of primordial Durga who first appeared in Her snake (cobra) form. She is Aathi Parakshakthi (the First One and also the Creator). More on this goddess in my article here.

Khodiyar Maa

Khodiyar Maa is goddess from the Naga kingdom - click here.


Goddess of wealth and beauty. She has her forms in Buddhism too, and is also analogical to Greek (goddess) Aphrodite. Lakshmi is Vishnu's consort, but throughout history she received various names depending on her incarnations (for example, Sita in Ramayana...). In shaktism, she is seen contrary to what vaishnavism says about Lakshmi. Shaktas may view her as part of the Holy Triangle of Female Divinity - DURGA is: 1) Kali (Power); 2) Saraswati (Wisdom); 3) Lakshmi (Wealth).

Lalita Tripurasundari - the Red Goddess

Tripura Sundari, also called Shodashi or Lalita, belongs to the group of ten Goddesses - Mahavidyas. It is believed that Lalita (also spelled as Lalitha) rose from the fire of a sacrifice, which advised sage Narada as an instruction for the Devas in their fight against a bad demon. Lalita was very beautiful and she married Lord Kameshwara, a form of Lord Shiva, and settled upon the top of the Maha Meru Mountain. A lot of information about Lalita is in the Brahmanda Purana (old epic of the universe).

Patala devi

Krishna's grandmother.


Prithvi is the Hindu term for Mother Earth and she, if personified, is considered to be the second wife of Lord Vishnu. She has also other names such as Bhudevi or Bhuma Devi (the Hindu Mother Goddess known as Pachamama in South America). She is the personification of Earth. Lord Vishnu married her in his Varaha incarnation after he won the battle with demon Hiranyaksha. Varaha, when He carried the Earth out of the ocean, married Prithvi (Bhudevi) in His Varaha avatar form. Bhudevi is the second (first is Lakshmi) wife of Lord Vishnu.


Radha is the consort of Lord Krishna. For some, she is also the form of Shakti in vaishnavism.


She is the goddess of passion and the daughter of Daksha (an ancient creator god, but not so powerful as Shiva or Vishnu).

Santoshi Maa

Santoshi Mata is relatively a new deity, which was made popular in 1975 following a religious film entitled Jai Santoshi Maa. Her devotees perceive her as Ganesha's daughter.


The Surya's consort and the goddess of dawn and clouds.

Sapta Matrikas

There was also a cult of Sapta Matrikas (Sapta - seven; matrika or matrka - mother). But the term Ashta (eight) Matrikas is also known (here Durga alone is the eighth Goddess).

The creation of Sapta Matrikas is described in Devi Mahatmyam in the Chapter "The Slaying of Raktabija" (Book 88 in the Markandeya Purana, verse 11-21):

Note: Guha is Lord Murugan; Sakra is another name for Lord Indra

At this moment, king, in order to destroy the gods' foes, and for the well-being of the lion-like Immortals, there issued forth endowed with excessive vigor and strength the Energies from the bodies of Brahma, Shiva, Guha and Vishnu and of Indra also, and went in the forms of those gods to Chandika. Whatever was the form of each god, and whatever his ornaments and vehicle, in that very appearance his Energy advanced to fight with the Asuras. In the front of a heavenly car drawn by swans advanced Brahma's Energy, bearing a rosary of seeds and an earthen water-pot; she is called Brahmani. Mahesvara's Energy, seated on a bull, grasping a fine trident, and wearing a girdle of large snakes, arrived, adorned with a digit of the moon. And Kumara's Energy, Ambika, with spear in hand and riding on a choice peacock, advanced in Guha's shape to attack the Daityas. Likewise Vishnu's Energy, seated upon Garuda, advanced with conch, discus, club, bow and scymitar in hand. The Energy of Hari, who assumes the peerless form of a sacrificial boar, she also advanced assuming a hog-like form. Nri-simha's Energy assuming a body like Nri-simha's arrived there, adorned with a cluster of constellations hurled down by the tossing of his mane. Likewise Indra's Energy, with thunder-bolt in hand, seated upon the lord of elephants and having a thousand eyes, arrived; as is Sakra, such indeed was she. Then those Energies of the gods surrounded Shiva. He said to Chandika, "Let the Asuras be slain forthwith through my good-will."

Download Markandeya Purana here.

Interesting is that Lord Vishnu has three Energies (Vaishnavi, Varahi, Nrisimhi) and the book Devi Mahatmyam gives a very big relevance to Lord Vishnu.Thus, the Sapta Matrikas (without Durga) or Ashta Matrikas (with Durga or Chandika) are:

1. Brahmani. 2. Maheshvari. 3. Kaumari. 4. Vaishnavi. 5. Varahi. 6. Indrani. 7. Nrisimhi.

These mothers are often seen around Ganesh

Hindu gods have also their consorts. Varahi on the picture (left) is the consort of Yama, god of death. Vishnu's consort is Lakshmi, Brahma's consort is Saraswati, Shiva's is Parvati, Ganesha's is Riddhi and Siddhi. Murugan's consorts are Teyvayanai and Valli.


She is a non-Vedic goddess of disease sometimes referred to as a village goddess. A similar goddess Mari is known in other parts of India. Most scholars maintain that these "village goddesses" are nothing but a local representation of Mother Divine (Kali, Parvati...).


Tara is the aspect of Great Devi (Hinduism), but she is also the Buddhist goddess. Buddhism adopted some female deities from pre-Buddhist cultures - for example, Hariti (Kishi-mojin in Japanese), originally a cannibalistic deity, was inherited probably from aboriginal tribes. We may speak about the Hariti and Yakshani cults, too. Yaksha is the name that denotes a broad class of the spirits of nature that appear in the Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist mythology. Buddhism has its own Tara, the principal Buddhist goddess with a number of attributes, often sharing the same status as (Hindu) Devi Durga. The Tibetan Buddhism has many deities, but Tara is the One known to all.

Urvashi, Rambha, Karkasha, Tilottama, Menaka

Lord Indra's (female) celestial dancers.


The Vedic female deity who wards off evil spirits. Her name in Sanskrit (Ushas) means dawn.

Vak (also spelled as Vac)

The Rig Vedic deity of speech, most probably the first form of Saraswati.


Also referred to as Purnamasi, Pournamasi, Yogamaya, is the incarnation of the Lord Yogamaya's potency. She is the arranger of Lord Krishna's spare activities.


Varuni, goddess of wine, is the consort of Varuna (god of the oceans).

Yeshé Walmo

Yeshé Walmo, magic wisdom goddess, comes from the Bön religion (Bön predates the Tibetan Buddhism).


Yami was the first woman (she has her twin brother called Yama). She is the goddess of river Yamuna.


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