# This is a date cracking script for FreeBSD, (c) George Sipos, 1999
# the following sets the variable "fname" which keeps the original date value
fname=`date "+ %y%m%d%H%M"`
# the following sets the old date, 99 is for 1999
# 10 is for month, 01 is for day, 1534 is time; change the date appropriately
# include here the program to run, make sure the program is in your
# path, or type, for example, /usr/bin/joe
# the following returns your original date; make sure you normally
# end the program with its CLOSE button when using X, otherwise
# your original date will not be switched back
A script to make ISO images
mkisofs -L -J -v -R -o /usr/cd.iso /disks
A script to change CAPITAL LETTERS to lower case
for x in *; do
y=`echo $x | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`
if [ $x != $y ]; then
mv $x $y
To format 1.44 MB diskettes for FreeBSD
fdformat -f 1440 fd0.1440
disklabel -w -r fd0.1440 floppy3
newfs -t 2 -u 18 -l 1 -i 65536 /dev/rfd0
How do I find IRQ's in my system?
Free space on hard drives (MB's)
How do I start XDM on boot?
A: There are two schools of thought on how to start XDM. One school starts XDM from /etc/ttys using the supplied example, while the other one simply runs XDM from rc.local or from the X.sh script in /usr/local/etc/rc.d. Both are equally valid.
How to create a bootable floppy?
dd if=/dev/ad0 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1
It will copy your Master Boot Record onto the diskette and then you can boot from this diskette.
If you wish to run apps of other Unices, try brandelf
brandelf -t FreeBSD file
How do I find free memory?
dmesg | grep memory
What to do if I forget my password?
Run the single user mode at startup (boot) menu.
When FreeBSD loads, run:
mount -u / (this will make your Read Only system writable; with the passwd command you can then change your password).
Use this table as an example for partitions (e.g., /dev/ad0s5 etc.)
for first disk for second disk
ad0s5 -- extended part. #1 (D:) ad1s5 -- extended part. #1
ad0s6 -- extended part. #2 (E:) ad1s6 -- extended part. #2
ad0s7 -- extended part. #3 (F:) ad1s7 -- extended part. #3
ad0s8 -- extended part. #4 (G:) ad1s8 -- extended part. #4
Partitions in FreeBSD
ad0s1a - / (root partition)
ad0s1b - swap
ad0s1e - /tmp
ad0s1f - /usr
ad0s1d - /var
How to make a BSD Fast File System for FreeBSD?
newfs -b 8192 1024 /dev/da0s1a
How to mount a CD?
mount -t cd9660 /dev/acd0c
How do I know if FreeBSD found my serial ports?
dmesg | grep sio sio2
sio2 (known as COM3 in DOS) is on /dev/cuaa2 for dial-out devices, and on /dev/ttyd2 for dial-in devices.